Back to Browse Journals » Journal of Inflammation Research » Volume 9




Authors Azizieh F, Alyahya KO, Raghupathy R


Received 29 December 2015


Accepted for publication 25 January 2016


Published 27 April 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 51—57



DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S103298


Checked for plagiarism Yes


Review by Single-blind


Peer reviewers approved by Dr Zhichao Fan


Peer reviewer comments 3


Editor who approved publication:
Dr Ning Quan



Fawaz Azizieh,1 Khulood O Alyahya,2 Raj Raghupathy3

1Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 2Science Department, College of Basic Education, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait

Background: No one can deny that the biological importance of vitamin D is much beyond its classical role in bone metabolism. Several recent publications have highlighted its potential role in the functioning of the immune system. The overall objective of this study was to look into possible correlations between levels of vitamin D and inflammatory markers in sera of healthy adult women. These markers included proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon [IFN]-γ, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13), as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) as a general indicator of inflammation.
Methods: Venous blood samples were collected from 118 healthy adult women and serum levels of vitamin D, CRP, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α), and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) were measured.
Results: There were no significant direct correlations between serum levels of vitamin D and any of the inflammatory markers measured. However, subjects with deficient levels of vitamin D and high CRP produced significantly higher levels of the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-8) as compared to subjects with low CRP levels with nondeficient and deficient levels of vitamin D. Further, the anti-inflammatory/proinflammatory ratios suggest a role of vitamin D in maintaining an anti-inflammatory environment at low levels of CRP, an association that is weaker at high CRP levels in subjects with subclinical inflammatory situations.
Conclusion: These data point to a possible role of vitamin D as a contributing factor in balancing cytokines toward an anti-inflammatory role in inflammatory situations.

Keywords: vitamin D, cytokines, adult women, CRP, Kuwait


Creative Commons License
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License.

By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.


Download Article [PDF]